The new law will require government employees to show their faces, as well as giving authorities the power to check women‚Äôs identities in elections.
It was opposed by politicians from the left-wing Die Linke and Die Gr√ľnen parties, who dismissed the legislation as a ‚Äúpurely symbolic policy‚ÄĚ pandering to the right-wing Alternative f√ľr Deutschland (AfD) ahead of September‚Äôs elections.
Critics argued that burqa-wearing soldiers and officials do not actually exist, making the new rules redundant, and said they will worsen tensions.
Angela Merkel announced her support for the move in December, saying full-face veils were ‚Äúnot acceptable in Germany‚ÄĚ and calling them to be banned ‚Äúwherever it is legally possible‚ÄĚ.
She is bidding for her fourth term as Chancellor, battling a rise in support for the anti-immigration AfD, which has blamed her decision to open Germany‚Äôs borders to refugees in 2015 for a series of Isis-inspired terror attacks.
Concerns about integration have also risen following the arrival of more than a million asylum seekers, who are mainly from Syria and other countries in the Middle East.
The state of Bavaria brought in its own burqa ban in February, prohibiting full-face Islamic veils in schools, polling stations, universities and government offices.